Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Rai, S., Awale, R., Ghimire, D.J., & Rao, D. (2023). Pathways of association between husbands' migration and mental health of their wives who stay behind. SSM-Mental Health. 3.

Axinn WG, Choi KW, Ghimire DJ, et al. Community-Level Social Support Infrastructure and Adult Onset of Major Depressive Disorder in a South Asian Postconflict Setting. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online January 26, 2022.

Brauner-Otto, S., Baird, S., & Ghimire, D. (2022). Women's employment and Children's education: Longitudinal evidence from Nepal. Social Science Research.

Axinn, W.G., Banchoff, E., Cole, F., Ghimire, D.J., & Smoller, J.W. (2022). The transition to parenthood, opportunity to drink, drinking, and alcohol use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 241.

Cole, Faith, Corina Benjet, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and William G. Axinn. 2021. “Predictors of Transitions across Stages of Alcohol Use and Disorders in an Adult Population with Heterogeneous Ethnic Restrictions Regarding Drinking.” Addiction 116 (4): 809–18.

An, L.; Bohnett, E.; Battle, C.; Dai, J.; Lewison, R.; Jankowski, P.; Carter, N.; Ghimire, D.; Dhakal, M.; Karki, J.; et al. 2021. Sex-Specific Habitat Suitability Modeling for Panthera tigris in Chitwan National Park, Nepal: Broader Conservation Implications. Sustainability, 13, 13885. DOI:

Ghimire, Dirgha, William G. Axinn, and Prem Bhandari. 2021. “Social Change, Out-migration, and Exit from Farming in Nepal.” Population and Environment 42:302-324. DOI: 10.1007/s11111-020-00363-5.PMCID: PMC8011527.

Ghimire, Dirgha, Yang Zhang, and Nathalie Williams. 2021. “Husbands’ migration: increased burden on or more autonomy for wives left behind?”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2019.1675502 PMCID: PMC7953850

Allendorf, Keera, Arland Thornton, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Linda Young-DeMarco and Colter Mitchell. 2020. “A Good Age to Marry? An Intergenerational Model of the Influence of Timing Attitudes on Entrance into Marriage.” European Journal of Population. DOI: 10.1007/s10680-020-09565-x. PMCID: PMC7865042.

Axinn, William G, Yang Zhang, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Stephanie A. Chardoul, Kate M. Scott, and Ronny Bruffaerts. 2020. “The Association between Marital Transitions and the Onset of Major Depressive Disorder in a South Asian General Population.” Journal of Affective Disorders 266:165-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.069. PMCID: PMC7103558.

Axinn, William G., Stephanie Chardoul, Heather Gatny, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Jordan W. Smoller, Yang Zhang, and Kate M. Scott. 2020. “Using Life History Calendars to Improve Measurement of Lifetime Experience with Mental Disorders.” Psychological Medicine 50(3):515-522. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291719000394. PMCID: PMC6739186.

Benjet, Corina, William G. Axinn, Sabrina Hermosilla, Paul Schulz, Faith Cole, Laura Sampson, and Dirgha Ghimire. 2020. “Exposure to Armed Conflict in Childhood vs Older Ages and Subsequent Onset of Major Depressive Disorder.” JAMA Network Open 3(11): e2019848. DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19848. PMCID: PMC7666425.

Brauner-Otto, S. R., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha. J. Ghimire. 2020. “Parents’ Marital Quality and Children’s Transition to Adulthood.” Demography 57:195-220. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-019-00851-w. PMCID: PMC7056585.

Devkota, Hridaya Raj, Tula Ram Sijali, Carisa Harris, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Ndola Prata, and Michael N. Bates. 2020. “Bio-mechanical risk factors for uterine prolapse among women living in the hills of west Nepal: A case-control study.” Women’s Health 16. DOI: 10.1177/1745506519895175. PMCID: PMC6977204.

Ghimire, Dirgha, and Prem Bhandari. 2020. “Study of Migration and Later Life Health in Nepal.” Journal of Migration and Health 1-2: 100018. DOI: NIHMSID: NIHMS1655559.

Pokhrel, Keshav P., Taysseer Sharaf, Prem Bhandari, and Dirgha Ghimire. 2020. “Farm Exit Among Smallholder Farmers of Nepal: A Bayesian Logistic Regression Models Approach.” Agriculture Research. DOI: 10.1007/s40003-020-00465-4.

Scott, Kate M., Yang Zhang, Stephanie Chardoul, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Jordan W. Smoller, and William G. Axinn. 2020. “Resilience to Mental Disorders in a Low-Income, Non-Westernized Setting.” Psychological Medicine 1-10. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291720001464. PMCID: PMC7704796.

Acharya, Yubraj, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Prem Bhandari, Ramesh Ghimire, and Andrew D. Jones. 2019. “Household Migration and Children’s Diet in Nepal: An Exploratory Study.” BMC Research Notes 12 (390). DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4430-x. PMCID: PMC6625056.

Brauner-Otto, Sarah, Sarah Baird, and Dirgha Ghimire. 2019. “Maternal Employment and Child Health in Nepal: The Importance of Job Type and Timing across the Child’s First Five Years.” Social Science and Medicine 224:94-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.009. PMCID: PMC6532054.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., Nathalie E. Williams, Arland Thornton, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Prem Bhandari. 2019. “Strategies for Origin-based Surveying of International Migrants.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45(7):1185-1206. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1394178. PMCID: PMC6481943.

Thornton, Arland, Dirgha Ghimire, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Prem Bhandari. 2019. “The Reliability and Stability of Measures about Individual’s Values and Beliefs Concerning Developmental Idealism in Nepal.” Sociology of Development 5(3): 314-336. DOI:

Williams, Nathalie E., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Karen A. Snedker. 2018. “Fear of Violence during Armed Conflict: Social roles and Responsibilities as Determinants of Fear.” Social Science Research 71:145-159. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2018.01.004. PMCID: PMC5846491.

Allendorf, Keera, Arland Thornton, Colter Mitchell and Linda Young-DeMarco and Dirgha Ghimire. 2017.  “Early Women, Late Men: Timing Attitudes and Gender Differences in Marriage” Journal of Marriage and Family. 79:1478-1496.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Emily Smith-Greenaway. 2017. “Emotional Variation and Fertility Behavior.” Demography 54(2):437-458. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-017-0555-5. PMCID: PMC5426117.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., William G. Axinn, Heather Gatny, and Stephanie Chardoul. 2017. “Preparing a Culturally Appropriate Translation of a Survey Questionnaire.” SAGE Research Methods Cases. Retrieved February 8, 2017 (

Pearlman, Jessica, Lisa D. Pearce, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Prem Bhandari, and Taylor Hargrove. 2017. “Postmarital Living Arrangements in Historically Patrilocal Settings: Integrating Household Fission and Migration Perspectives.” Demography 54(4):1425-1449. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-017-0588-9. PMCID: PMC5856169.

Yabiku, Scott T., Jennifer E. Glick, Elizabeth Wentz, Dirgha Ghimire, and Qunshan Zhao. 2017. “Comparing Paper and Tablet Modes of Retrospective Activity Space Data Collection.”  Survey Research Methods 11(3):329-344. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2017.v11i3.6741. PMCID: PMC5881931.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. 2016. “Social Context of First Birth Timing in a Rapidly Changing Rural Setting.” Social Science Research 61:314-329. Retrieved February 8, 2017 ( PMCID: PMC5125526.

Bhandari, Prem B. and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2016. “Rural Agricultural Change and Individual Out-migration.” Rural Sociology 81(4):572-600. doi:10.1111/ruso.12106. NIHMSID: NIHMS835527. PMCID: PMC5220587.

Hawes, Armani, William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2016. “Ethnicity and Psychiatric Disorders.” Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health 4(4):1072. PMCID: PMC5560443.

Axinn, William G., Nathalie E. Williams, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Kate M. Scott. 2015. “Associations between the Social Organization of Communities and Psychiatric Disorders in Rural Asia.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 50(10):1537-1545. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-015-1042-1. PMCID: PMC4594883.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J. 2015. “Wives’ and Husbands’ Nonfamily Experiences and First-Birth Timing.” International Journal of Sociology 45(1):4-23. DOI: 10.1080/00207659.2015.1004974. PMCID: PMC4587386.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J., William G. Axinn, and Emily Smith-Greenaway. 2015. “Impact of the Spread of Mass Education on Married Women’s Experience with Domestic Violence.” Social Science Research 54:319-331. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.08.004. PMCID: PMC4607934.

West, Brady T., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2015. “Evaluating a Modular Design Approach to Collecting Survey Data Using Text Messages.” Survey Research Methods 9(2):111-123. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2015.v9i2.6135. PMCID: PMC4551499.

Carter, Neil H., Andrés Viña, Vanessa Hull, William J. McConnell, William Axinn, Dirgha Ghimire, and Jianguo Liu. 2014. “Coupled Human and Natural Systems Approach to Wildlife Research and Conservation.” Ecology and Society 19(3):43. DOI: 10.5751/ES-06881-190343.

Bhandari, Prem and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2013. “Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.” Rural Sociology 78(2):229-252. DOI: 10.1111/ruso.12007. PMCID: PMC3667159.

Binstock, Georgina, Arland Thornton, Mohammad J. Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha Ghimire, Yu Xie, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2013. “Influences on the Knowledge and Beliefs of Ordinary People about Developmental Hierarchies.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 54(4):325-344. DOI: 10.1177/0020715213506726. PMCID: PMC3952150.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2013. “Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility.” Demography 50(5):1663-1686. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-013-0221-5. PMCID: PMC3786027.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., Stephanie Chardoul, Ronald C. Kessler, William G. Axinn, and Bishnu P. Adhikari. 2013. “Modifying and Validating the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for Use in Nepal.” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 22(1):71-81. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.1375. PMCID: PMC3610833.

Piotrowski, Martin, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 2013. “Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand and Chitwan Valley, Nepal.” Rural Sociology 78(1):75-108. DOI: 10.1111/ruso.12000. PMCID: PMC3963478.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Nathalie E. Williams. 2012. “Collecting Survey Data during Armed Conflict.” Journal of Official Statistics 28(2):153-171.  PMCID: PMC3571111.

Jennings, E., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2012. “The Effect of Parents’ Attitudes on Son’s Marriage Timing.” American Sociological Review 77(6):923-945. DOI: 10.1177/0003122412464041. PMCID: PMC3590910.

Link, Cynthia F., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2012. “Household Energy Consumption: Community Context and the Fuelwood Transition.” Social Science Research 41(3):598-611. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.12.007. PMCID: PMC3461177.

Thornton, Arland, Georgina Binstock, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha Ghimire, Arjan Gjonca, Attila Melegh, Colter Mitchell, Mansoor Moaddel, Yu Xie, Li-shou Yang, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2012. “Knowledge and Beliefs about National Development and Developmental Hierarchies: the Viewpoints of Ordinary People in Thirteen Countries.” Social Science Research 41(5):1053-1068. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.03.005. PMCID: PMC3462366.

Thornton, Arland, Georgina Binstock, Kathryn Yount, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Yu Xie. 2012. “International Fertility Change: New Data and Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.” Demography 49:677–698. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-012-0097-9. PMCID: PMC3328099.

Thornton, Arland, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Colter Mitchell. 2012. “The Measurement and Prevalence of an Ideational Model of Family and Economic Development in Nepal.” Population Studies 66(3):329-345. DOI: 10.1080/00324728.2012.714795. PMCID: PMC3505987.

Williams, Nathalie E., Dirgha J. Ghimire, William G. Axinn, Elyse A. Jennings, and Meeta S. Pradhan. 2012. “A Micro-Level Event-Centered Approach to Investigating Armed Conflict and Population Responses.” Demography 49(4):1521-1546. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-012-0134-8. PMCID: PMC3495997.

Axinn, William, G. and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2011. “Social Organization, Population, and Land Use.” American Journal of Sociology 117(1):209-258. DOI: 10.1086/661072. PMCID: PMC3162250.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2010. “Community Context, Land Use and First Birth.” Rural Sociology 75(3):478-513. DOI: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2010.00019.x. PMCID: PMC2945390.

Massey, Douglas S., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2010. “Environmental Change and Out-Migration: Evidence from Nepal.”  Population and Environment 32(2):109-136. DOI: 10.1007/s11111-010-0119-8. PMCID: PMC3042700.

Massey, Douglas S., Nathalie Williams, William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2010.  “Community Services and Out-Migration.”  International Migration 48(3):1-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00581.x. PMCID: PMC3146299.

Bhandari, Prem, Sunder Shyam Shrestha, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2007. “Sociocultural and Geographical Disparities in Child Immunization in Nepal.” Asia Pacific Population Journal 22(1):43-64. DOI: 10.18356/1e441780-en.

Brauner-Otto, Sarah R., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2007. “The Spread of Health Services and Fertility Transition.” Demography 44(4):747-770. DOI: 10.1353/dem.2007.0041.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and Lynette F. Hoelter. 2007. “Land Use and First Birth Timing in an Agricultural Setting.”  Population and Environment 28(6):289-320. DOI: 10.1007/s11111-007-0056-3.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2006. “Family Change in Nepal: Evidence from Western Chitwan.” Contributions to Nepalese Studies 33(2):177-201.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J., William G. Axinn, Scott A. Yabiku, and Arland Thornton. 2006. “Social Change, Premarital Non-Family Experiences and Spouse Choice in an Arranged Marriage Society.” American Journal of Sociology 111(4):1181-1218. DOI: 10.1086/498468.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and Paul Mohai. 2005. “Environmentalism and Contraceptive Use: How People in Less Developed Settings Approach Environmental Issues.” Population and Environment 27(1):29-61. DOI: 10.1007/s11111-005-0012-z.

Hoelter, Lynette F., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2004. “Social Change, Premarital Nonfamily Experiences, and Marital Dynamics.” Journal of Marriage and Family 66:1131-1151. DOI: 10.1086/498468.

Axinn, William G., Lisa D. Pearce, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 1999. “Innovations in Life History Calendar Applications.” Social Science Research 28:243-264. DOI: 10.1006/ssre.1998.0641.

Axinn, William G., Jennifer S. Barber, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 1997.  “The Neighborhood History Calendar: A Data Collection Method Designed for Dynamic Multilevel Modeling.” Sociological Methodology 27:355-392. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9531.271031