Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Williams, Nathalie E., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Karen A. Snedker. 2018. "Fear of Violence during Armed Conflict: Trauma, Risks, and Resources as Determinants of Fear" Social Science Research 71:145-159. DOI

Allendorf, Keera, Arland Thornton, Colter Mitchell and Linda Young-DeMarco and Dirgha Ghimire. 2017.  “Early Women, Late Men: Timing Attitudes and Gender Differences in Marriage” Journal of Marriage and Family. 79:1478-1496.

Pearlman, Jessica, Lisa Pearce, Dirgha Ghimire, Prem Bhandari and Taylor Hargrove. 2017.  “Social Contexts and the Living Arrangements of Recently Married Sons: Understanding Factors Driving Household Fission.” Demography  54:1425–1449 DOI 10.1007/s13524-017-0588-9.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Emily Smith-Greenaway. 2017. “Emotional Variation and Fertility Bhavior.” Demography 54(2):437-458.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., William G. Axinn, Heather Gatny, and Stephanie Chardoul. 2017. “Preparing a Culturally Appropriate Translation of a Survey Questionnaire.” SAGE Research Methods Cases. Retrieved February 8, 2017 (

Ghimire, Dirgha J. 2016. “Social Context of First Birth Timing in a Rapidly Changing Rural Setting.” Social Science Research 61:314-329. Retrieved February 8, 2017 ( PMCID: PMC5125526.

Bhandari, Prem B. and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2016. “Rural Agricultural Change and Individual Out-migration.” Rural Sociology 81(4):572-600. doi:10.1111/ruso.12106. NIHMSID: NIHMS835527. PMCID: PMC5220587.

Hawes, Armani, William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2016. “Ethnicity and Mental Health.” Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health 4(4):1072.

Axinn, William G., Nathalie E. Williams, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Kate M. Scott. 2015. “Associations between the Social Organization of Communities and Psychiatric Disorders in Rural Asia.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 50(10):1537-1545. PMCID: PMC4594883.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J. 2015. “Wives’ and Husbands’ Nonfamily Experiences and First-Birth Timing.” International Journal of Sociology 45(1):4-23. PMCID: PMC4587386.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J., William G. Axinn, and Emily Smith-Greenaway. 2015. “Impact of the Spread of Mass Education on Married Women’s Experience with Domestic Violence.” Social Science Research54:319-331. PMCID: PMC4607934.

West, Brady T., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2015. “Evaluating a Modular Design Approach to Collecting Survey Data Using Text Messages.” Survey Research Methods 9(2):111-123. PMCID: PMC4551499.

Carter, Neil H., Andrés Viña, Vanessa Hull, William J. McConnell, William Axinn, Dirgha Ghimire, and Jianguo Liu. 2014. “Coupled Human and Natural Systems Approach to Wildlife Research and Conservation.” Ecology and Society 19(3):43.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, Nathalie E. Williams, and Kate M. Scott. 2013. “Gender, Traumatic Events and Mental Health Disorders in a Rural Asian Setting.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 54(4):444-461. PMCID: PMC3891584.

Allendorf, Keera and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2013. “Determinants of Marital Quality in an Arranged Marriage Society.” Social Science Research 42(1):59-70. PMCID: PMC3711098.

Bhandari, Prem and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2013. “Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.” Rural Sociology 78(2):229-252. PMCID: PMC3667159.

Binstock, Georgina, Arland Thornton, Mohammad J. Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha Ghimire, Yu Xie, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2013. “Influences on the Knowledge and Beliefs of Ordinary People about Developmental Hierarchies.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 54(4):325-344. PMCID: PMC3952150.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2013. “Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility.” Demography 50(5):1663-1686. PMCID: PMC3786027.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., Stephanie Chardoul, Ronald C. Kessler, William G. Axinn, and Bishnu P. Adhikari. 2013. “Modifying and Validating the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for Use in Nepal.” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 22(1):71-81. PMCID: PMC3610833.

Piotrowski, Martin, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 2013. “Farming Systems and Rural Out-Migration in Nang Rong, Thailand and Chitwan Valley, Nepal.” Rural Sociology 78(1):75-108. PMCID: PMC3963478.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Nathalie E. Williams. 2012. “Collecting Survey Data during Armed Conflict.” Journal of Official Statistics 28(2):153-171.  PMCID: PMC3571111.

Jennings, E., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2012. “The Effect of Parents’ Attitudes on Son’s Marriage Timing.” American Sociological Review 77(6):923-945. PMCID: PMC3590910.

Link, Cynthia F., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2012  “Household Energy Consumption: Community Context and Fuelwood Transition.” Social Science Research 41(3):598-611. PMCID: PMC3461177.

Thornton, Arland, Georgina Binstock, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha Ghimire, Arjan Gjonca, Attila Melegh, Colter Mitchell, Mansoor Moaddel, Yu Xie, Li-shou Yang, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2012. “Knowledge and Beliefs about National Development and Developmental Hierarchies: the Viewpoints of Ordinary People in Thirteen Countries.” Social Science Research 41(5):1053-1068. PMCID: PMC3461177.

Thornton, Arland, Georgina Binstock, Kathryn Yount, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Yu Xie. 2012. “International Fertility Change: New Data and Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.” Demography 49:677–698. PMCID: PMC3328099.

Thornton, Arland, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Colter Mitchell. 2012. “The Measurement and Prevalence of Knowledge of Schema about Family and Development.” Population Studies 66(3):329-345. PMCID: PMC3505987.

Williams, Nathalie E., Dirgha J. Ghimire, William G. Axinn, Elyse A. Jennings, and Meeta S. Pradhan. 2012. “A Micro-Level Event-Centered Approach to Investigating Armed Conflict and Population Responses.” Demography 49(4):1521-1546. PMCID: PMC3495997.

Axinn, William, G. and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2011. “Social Organization, Population, and Land Use.” American Journal of sociology 117(1):209-258. PMCID: PMC3162250.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2010. “Community Context, Land Use and First Birth.” Rural Sociology 75(3):478-513. PMCID: PMC2945390.

Massey, Douglas S., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2010. “Environmental Change and Out-Migration: Evidence from Nepal.”  Population and Environment 32(2):109-136. PMCID: PMC3042700.

Massey, Douglas S., Nathalie Williams, William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2010.  “Community Services and Out-Migration.”  International Migration 48(3):1-41. PMCID: PMC3146299.

Bhandari, Prem, Sunder Shyam Shrestha, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2007. “Sociocultural and Geographical Disparities in Child Immunization in Nepal.” Asia Pacific Population Journal 22(1):43-64.

Brauner-Otto, Sarah R., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2007. “Social Change, Health Services and Fertility Transition.” Demography 44(4):747-770. PMID: 18232209.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and Lynette F. Hoelter. 2007. “Land Use and First Birth Timing in an Agricultural Setting.”  Population and Environment 28(6):289-320.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. 2006. “Family Change in Nepal: Evidence from Western Chitwan.” Contributions to Nepalese Studies 33(2):177-201.

Ghimire, Dirgha, J., William G. Axinn, Scott A. Yabiku, and Arland Thornton. 2006. “Social Change, Premarital Non-Family Experiences and Spouse Choice in an Arranged Marriage Society.” American Journal of Sociology 111(4):1181-1218.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and Paul Mohai. 2005. “Environmentalism and Contraceptive Use: How People in Less Developed Settings Approach Environmental Issues.” Population and Environment 27(1):29-61.

Hoelter, Lynette F., William G. Axinn, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2004. “Social Change, Premarital Non-Family Experiences, and Marital Relationship Quality.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 66:1131-1151.

Axinn, William G., Lisa D. Pearce, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 1999. “Innovations in Life History Calendar Applications.” Social Science Research 28:243-264.

Axinn, William G., Jennifer S. Barber, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 1997.  “The Neighborhood History Calendar: A Data Collection Method Designed for Dynamic Multilevel Modeling.” Pp. 355-392 in Sociological Methodology, edited by A. E. Raftery.  Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.


Ghimire, Dirgha J., Nathalie Williams, Arland Thornton, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Prem Bhandari. Forthcoming “Strategies for origin-based surveying of international migrants.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Yabiku, Scott T., Jennifer E. Glick, Elizabeth Wentz, Dirgha Ghimire, and Qunshan Zhao. Forthcoming.  “Comparing Paper and Tablet Modes of Retrospective Activity Space Data Collection.”  Survey Research Methods.

Axinn, William G., Sarah R. Brauner-Otto, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. “Parents’ Marital Quality, Children’s Educations, and Children’s Marriage Timing.”

Allendorf, Keera, Arland Thornton, Dirgha Ghimire, Linda Young-DeMarco and Colter Mitchell. “A Good Age to Marry? An Intergenerational Model of the Influence of Timing Attitudes on Entrance into Marriage.”

Williams, Nathalie and Dirgha Ghimire. Forthcoming. “Mixed Methods Data Collection in a Comparative International Context: New Technologies, New Opportunities for Social Science in Advances.” in Comparative Survey Methodology edited by Timothy P. Johnson, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Ineke A. L. Stoop, and Brita Dorer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Mneimneh, Zeina, N., William G. Axinn, Dirgha Ghimire, Kristen L. Cibelli and Mohammad Salih Alkaisy. 2014. “Conducting surveys in areas of armed conflict.” Pp.134-156 in Hard- to-Survey Populations edited by R. Tourangeau, B. Edwards, T. P. Johnson, K. M. Wolter, and N. Bates. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, Nathalie E., Arland Thornton, Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Linda C. Young-DeMarco.  2012.  “Nepali Migrants to the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Behaviors, Plans, and Values.” Pp. 155-185 in Migrant Labor in the Persian Gulf, edited by M. Kamrava and Z. Babar. London, UK: C. Hurt & Co. Ltd.

Thornton, Arland, Alexandra  Achen, Jennifer S. Barber,  Georgina Binstock, Wade M. Garrison, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Ronald  Inglehart,  Rukmalie Jayakody, Yang Jiang, Julie de Jong, Katherine King, Ron J. Lesthaeghe, Sohair Mehenna, Colter Mitchell, Mansoor Moaddel, Mary Beth Ofstedal, Nobert  Schwarz,  Guangzhou Wang, Y. Xie, Li-Shou Yang, Linda C. Young-DeMarco, and Katharine Yount. 2010. “Process and Method for Creating Questions and Protocols for an International Study of Developmental Idealism, Developmental Thinking, and Family Life.” Pp. 59-74 in Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional and Multicultural Contexts, edited by M. Braun, B. Edwards, J. Harkness, T. Johnson, L. Lyberg, P. Mohler, B. E. Pennell, and T. W. Smith. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Axinn, William G., Dirgha J. Ghimire, and Jennifer S. Barber. 2008. “The Influence of Ideational Dimensions of Social Change on Family Formation in Nepal.” Pp.251-280 in International Family Change: Ideational Perspectives, edited by R. Jayakody, A. Thornton and W. G. Axinn. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Thornton, Arland, Georgina Binstock, and Dirgha J. Ghimire. 2008. “International Dissemination of Ideas about Development and Family Change.” Pp. 19-44 in International Family Change: Ideational Perspectives, edited by R. Jayakody, A. Thornton, and W. G. Axinn. Mahwah, NJ:  Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. 2003. Review of Harbingers of Rain: Land and Life in South India by A. R. Vasavi. The Journal of Asian Studies 62(3):689-91.

Fehringer, Jessica, Prem Bhandari, Dirgha Ghimire, Jeevan Raj Lohani, B. Dawadi, V. Acharya, and B. Adhikari. 2015. Impact Evaluation of Approaches to Strengthen Health Facility Operation and Management Committees in Nepal: Baseline Report. MEASURE Evaluation Gender, Policy, and Measurement Program (funded by USAID) (

de Jong, Julie, Dirgha Ghimire, Arland Thornton, and Lisa D. Pearce. 2006. "Developmental Idealism and Changing Models of Marriage." PSC Research Report No. 06-609. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Ghimire, Dirgha J. 1994. CARE-Nepal Long Range Strategy Plan, CARE-International in Nepal.

Ghimire, Dirgha J., William G. Axinn and Prem Bhandari. “Social change, Out-migration and Exit from Agriculture.”

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. “Parents’ Socioeconomic Characteristics and Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Behavior.”

Ghimire, Dirgha J. “Fatalism, Developmental Idealism and Values and Beliefs Concerning Family Life in Nepal.”

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. “Social Change, Population, and Environment: Impact of Population on Bio-diversity in a Natural Resources-Dependent Community.”

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and Prem Bhandari. “Migration Experience and Health Outcomes in Nepal.”

Ghimire, Dirgha J. and William G. Axinn. “Community-Level Ideation and Fertility Transition: Neighbors’ Ideas and Transition to Parenthood.”